Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe

The Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) was established in 1994 by a number of European pharmaceutical care researchers. It became an official association (under Dutch law) in 2004.

Medication Review Drug-related problem classification Guidelines and Indicators

9th PCNE Working Conference 2015, Mechelen, Belgium

Pharmaceutical Care V2.0: From experience to expertise

4-6 February 2015


Dear friends,

PCNE has grown-up: 20 years old and now a very active and strong research network operating across Europe and beyond. In the early days of PCNE, the focus was on documenting the impact and value of pharmaceutical care services, resulting in a strong research evidence base. More recently we have also turned our attention to the core competencies required to undertake pharmaceutical care services and to the guidelines to implement such services.

Today we see that the research and the implementation of pharmaceutical care in many countries focus on some of the core activities such as medication management or counselling. However, researchers and practitioners are still struggling to get pharmaceutical care activities in a broader sense designed and implemented in the best possible way.

The PCNE working conference provides an excellent opportunity to explore and discuss new research methods and concepts for the evaluation and implementation of pharmaceutical care services with like-minded colleagues from across the globe. Therefore we would like to welcome you to Mechelen, where we will share professional and research experiences in pharmaceutical care, in a learning environment that is suitable for both early-career and more experienced researchers, people from professional organisations and PhD students. The plenary lectures promise to be thought provoking. The workshops, which extend over three days, will allow for detailed and robust discussions about many elements of pharmaceutical care research from both a practical and theoretical perspective.  
In order to further improve pharmaceutical care for the patient, we invite you to come to Mechelen, and join us for this exciting program.

Dr. Charlotte Rossing, Hillerod
PCNE Chairperson

Dr. Veerle Foulon, Leuven
PCNE Secretary

 

As usual, the slides of the lectures and reports of the workshops will gradually appear on these pages.

The program

Download the program as foldable PDF from here

Abstracts

Click on the tab 'Abstracts' for the accepted abstracts. Accepted abstracts are also published in the International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy.

The Venue

Lamot Brewery_3The conference was held in The Lamot Brewery, Mechelen, Belgium.

Mechelen

Mechelen lies on the major urban and industrial axis Brussels-Antwerp, about 25 km from each city. The Dijle flows through the city, hence it is often referred to as the Dijlestad ("City on the river Dijle").

Mechelen is one of Flanders' prominent cities of historical art, with Antwerp, Bruges, Brussels, Ghent, and Leuven. It was notably a center for artistic production during the Northern Renaissance, when painters, printmakers, illuminators and composers of polyphony were attracted by patrons such as Margaret of York, Margaret of Austria and Jeroen Van Busleyden.

 

Accreditation

The PCNE working Conference will be accredited for Dutch participants (community pharmacists) for 17 continuing education hours. If you think that the program should also be accredited in your country, contact the PCNE secretariat with the necessary information.

Sponsors

PCNE gratefully acknowledges support from Springer Science and Business Media, Bayer AG , Febelco (the biggest Belgian wholesaler of medicines) and Farmad (a Belgian softwarhouse for pharmacies).  The Belgian Pharmacist Association APB and the Förderinitiative Pharmazeutische Betreuung sponsor the poster and oral communication awards.

If you want to sponsor our event, contact the PCNE secretariat at info@pcne.org.

 

  

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Springer

Bayer

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Conference committee

Charlotte Rossing, Denmark; Isabelle Dewulf, Belgium; Veerle Foulon, Belgium; Kurt Hersberger, Basle; Foppe van Mil, the Netherlands; Martin Henman, Ireland; Mitja Kos, Slovenia; Tim Chen, Australia

Lectures

Click on title to opload a pdf of the presentation.

 

Short oral communications

Logo FI PharmBetr 2015The Oral Communication award for the best Oral Communication has been made available by the German Förderinitiative Pharmazeutische Betreuung.

 

Click on title to opload a pdf of the presentation.

Development and validation of the SCOPE (Severity Categorization for Pharmaceutical Evaluation) criteria to evaluate the severity of drug related problems in chronic kidney disease. Patricia Quintana Bárcena  (Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.)

Clinical risk management in patients with (risk of) impaired renal function in community pharmacies in the Netherlands. Ellen Koster (UPPER, Utrecht University. the Netherlands)

ProFiL, a training-and-communication network program in nephrology for community pharmacists: impact on knowledge, clinical competences, quality of medication use and clinical variables. Lyne LalondeFaculty of pharmacy, Université de Montréal.)

Depression training for pharmacists significantly improves patients’ satisfaction, concerns and feelings about side effects regarding antidepressant therapy. Sophie Liekens (KU Leuven, Department of Pharmaceutical & Pharmacological sciences, Leuven Belgium) Winner of the FI-Award for the best oral communication.

Quality of pharmaceutical care in the Netherlands: the results of five years of quality indicator measurement in Dutch community pharmacies. Martina Teichert
(KNMP, the Hague, the Netherlands. IQHealthcare RadboudUMC, Nijmegen, the Netherlands)

Comprehensibly measuring patients' subjective thoughts, feelings and experiences of living with medicines – the Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ). Stephen R. Carter (Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.)

Workshops

The details of the following workshops can be found below:

1. Medication Review - Tools and Guidelines (Hersberger & Horvat)

Workshop report

Workshop introduction 1

Workshop introduction 2

2. Implementation sciences - The Theory of implementation (Moullin & Thomsen)

Workshop report

Workshop introduction

3. This workshop has been cancelled. Participants have received an alternative option

4. Patient specific evaluation measures for medication review (Chen & Westerlund)

⇒ Workshop report

5. Dealing with complex patients in pharmaceutical care research (Henman & Liekens)

Workshop report

Workshop Introductions

6. Lets help each other. improving the quality of pharmaceutical care research designs (Kos & Foulon/Rossing)

 


Workshop 1: Medication review - Tools and guidelines

(Facilitator: Kurt Hersberger, Switzerland and Nejc Horvat, Slovenia)
A workshop both for people who are new in the field, and for more experienced people willing to share experiences

Introduction:

In 2009, PCNE has defined three types of medication review i.e., simple, intermediate and advanced medication review. These types depend on the available types and sources of information. In order to cover both, the ambulatory and the clinical setting, later a forth type was added (intermediate performed in the clinical setting).

Aim:

To get familiar with tools and guidelines developed and used in medication reviews, and, where necessary, to optimize the tools and guidelines.

Learning objectives:

  • To get to know the characteristics of the different types of medication review and to exchange experiences among participants
  • To become aware of a number of unresolved issues with respect to practice and research methodology
  • To be able to develop criteria for selection of explicit and implicit checklists and possible tools supporting the execution of a medication review in the ambulatory or clinical setting
  • To outline specifications for evaluation of guidelines for medication reviews

Activities in the workshop:

During the workshop we will summarize the output of previous workshops (characteristics of the 4 types, tasks and methodologies, workflow, skills needed, patient selection) and discuss unresolved issues. There are different ways of conducting medication reviews and we will try to work out basic standards for each type. With respect to complexity in pharmacotherapy (multimorbidity, polypharmacy, different physicians involved) we further screen existing explicit and implicit checklists for detection of drug related problems and we will develop criteria to work with ending up with the development of guideline(s) for the four types of MR. Such guidelines should also address the issues involved in recommending interventions.

 


 

Workshop 2: Implementation sciences - The theory of implementation

(Facilitator: Joanna Moullin, Australia & Linda Thomsen, Denmark)
A workshop for researchers and people with interest in implementation;

Introduction:

A growing area of importance in pharmaceutical care is how to implement new developments and services.  Without consideration of implementation at the onset, complex interventions are developed that may be too difficult or impractical for daily practice.  Moreover any new change in practice, including starting to deliver a service, requires a carefully planned and executed implementation protocol for the impact of new interventions to be realised.  The disciple of implementation science has developed to study the elements necessary for successful adoption and integration of innovations.

This workshop will explore the concepts and difficulties of implementation in relation to pharmaceutical care and the implementation of professional pharmacy services.

Aim:

To learn, discuss and adapt implementation theory including the factors, strategies and evaluations necessary to guide successful implementation efforts, including from a practice, organizational, and research perspective.

Learning objectives:

  • To gain an understanding of knowledge translation and implementation science
  • To become aware of a number of useful implementation frameworks including the Framework for the Implementation of Services in Pharmacy (FISpH)
  • To be able to develop objectives, strategies and indicators and for implementation projects

Activities in the workshop:

Participants will discuss and share experiences as well as learn from leading experts in field to develop a tool to guide the implementation of an innovation in pharmaceutical care. Depending on the group this may be a targeted at the level of a pharmacy trying to implement, as a research proposal, or as a professional organization scale-up plan.

 


 

Workshop 4: Patient specific evaluation measures for medication review

(Facilitators: Tim Chen, Australia; Tommy Westerlund, Sweden)
A workshop primarily for experienced researchers

Introduction:

Pharmaceutical care services such as comprehensive medication review or medication therapy management are now recognised as core services provided by pharmacists. Over the past two decades there has been a concerted and sustained effort by practitioners and researchers to conduct well designed trials which measure the impact and outcomes of pharmaceutical care services. A critical part of any well designed evaluation strategy is the careful selection of measures with acceptable psychometric properties, including reliability and validity. Measures should also be of acceptable sensitivity and specificity. A common conceptual framework used to consider evaluation measures classifies them as either economic or clinical or humanistic in nature.

Aim:

To develop outcome indicators and evaluation measures for medication review / pharmaceutical care services, from the patient’s perspective

Learning objectives:

  • To describe a range of humanistic measures which can be used to evaluate medication review / pharmaceutical care services
  • To understand the principles of testing evaluation instruments for reliability and validity; and sensitivity and specificity
  • To understand the properties of outcome indicators and evaluation measures which make them suitable for evaluating medication review / pharmaceutical care services
  • To be able to develop humanistic outcome indicators and evaluation measures for medication review / pharmaceutical care services

Activities in the workshop:

We will facilitate small group discussion on the purpose and utility of measuring humanistic outcomes such as satisfaction and health related quality of life, what patient reported outcomes (PROs) can and should be measured and the properties of these measures; and the considerations in using humanistic measures for evaluating pharmaceutical care services, whether they be disease-focused or more general in nature. We will draw on the individual and collective experiences of all participants in this highly interactive workshop and will endeavor to make this workshop as practical as possible. Participants will be provided with a set of selected references and materials by the end of the workshop.


 

Workshop 5: Dealing with complex patients in pharmaceutical care research

(Facilitator: Martin Henman, Ireland & Sophie Liekens, Belgium)

A workshop for people dealing with complex patients in research or implementation projects (e.g. patients with mental illness, patients with dementia, illiterate patients)

Introduction:

The patient, the condition and the drug treatment may all contribute to the complexity of a patient case. Most commonly, the problems arise because of cognitive impairment and associated communication difficulties. A consequence of this is the under-representation of these populations in clinical research. The problems present at several points in the research process. Although the capability to provide informed consent has attracted the most attention and both the ethical guidance and a variety of practical approaches have been devised and evaluated, many researchers are not familiar with this body of work. Furthermore, to assess a patient’s symptoms is also a challenge, but fortunately several attempts have been made with different patient groups, such as those with dementia to develop clinical assessment tools, some of which can be used to evaluate the efficacy of medication treatment. Similarly, investigating medication side effects can require special tools. Many of these vulnerable groups of patients live in homes in groups and guidance has been produced for the assessment of group interventions. However, this workshop will focus primarily on the patient who poses complex problems in practice and in research.

Aim:

The workshop will explore the research process in dealing with complex patients and provide an understanding of the challenges and types of solutions that may be employed to overcome them.

Learning objectives:

  1. To understand and identify what makes research difficult in complex patients/populations.
  2. To reflect on communicating in and about research.
  3. To identify measures to take into account when designing research in complex patients/populations.
  4. To apply basic communication skills with complex patients / stakeholders.

Activities in the workshop:

We will facilitate group discussion in order to draw on the individual and collective experiences of all participants in this highly interactive workshop.Participants will be able to discuss and share their experiences regarding complex patients/populations in research. This will result in an overview of the challenges and problems present at several points in the research process when dealing with complex patients/populations. Next, participants will reflect on different types of solutions that may be employed to overcome and address these challenges.

 


 

Workshop 6: Lets help each other. improve the quality of pharmaceutical care research designs (new title)

(Facilitator: Mitja Kos, Slovenia, Veerle Foulon, Belgium and/or Charlotte Rossing, Denmark)

This is a workshop for PhD researchers willing to present,  share and discuss their own research ideas.

Introduction:

Pharmaceutical care research is inevitably connected with clinical practice. Researchers try to describe facts of current and past professional practice. On the other hand, they also try to develop and validate interventions that will improve health care outcomes, including patients’ quality of life. Pharmaceutical care research is a relatively new field of research within pharmaceutical science. On the other hand, a number of methodological approaches are known from before and other fields. Nevertheless, the area represents an interesting challenge of quantitative and qualitative methodology for new as well as established researchers in the field.

Aim:

To get a qualified and peer-reviewed feedback on your own pharmaceutical care research project in order to advance the quality of research design.

Learning objectives:

  • To understand methodological approaches in pharmaceutical care research.
  • To advance your own research design.

Activities in the workshop:

Participants will present their research designs of their current and/or past research projects. In-depth discussion will be stimulated in order to get a relevant feedback from the group as well as workshop-leaders. Experiences from the past research involvements will be used to understand the advantages and disadvantages as well as the feasibility of possible methodological approaches. Based on the qualified and peer-reviewed feedback the participants will aim to advance their research project designs.

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Program

The program can be downloaded by clicking on this Link. Please note that the dowloaded PDF is formatted as a booklet.

Abstracts

Logo APB

The Poster award for the best poster has been made available by the Belgian Pharmacist Association APB. It was won by Ana Janezic from Slovenia with her poster ‘Medication adherence and health outcomes among asthma patients in Slovenia’. 

A printable list of approved abstracts can be downloaded here as pdf.

 

 


 

List of accepted abstracts (click on the title to see the abstract)

ID Title Scope Organization
11 Development and validation of the SCOPE (Severity Categorization for Pharmaceutical Evaluation) criteria to evaluate the severity of drug related problems in chronic kidney disease: the perspective of Drug-Related Problems Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
19 Impact of clinical pharmacist interventions in the medical ward-A study at Alkhor hospital Drug-Related Problems Hamad Medical Corporation
21 Clinical risk management in patients with (risk of) impaired renal function in community pharmacies in the Netherlands Drug-Related Problems UPPER, Utrecht University
38 Clinical drug related problems and interventions of pharmacists on prescribed medicines in Belgium Drug-Related Problems APB
41 Prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions in Slovenia in 2013 Drug-Related Problems Chair of Social Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana- Faculty of Pharmacy, Askerceva 7, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
45 Therapeutic consumption for improved performance. Is there a risk? Drug-Related Problems CiiEM, Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz, Monte de Caparica, Portugal
47 Identification of Drug Related Problems in a sample of Portuguese nursing homes Drug-Related Problems CiiEM, Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz (ISCSEM), Monte de Caparica, Portugal
54 The legal benzodiazepines users – is there a role for community pharmacists in Poland? Drug-Related Problems Department of Social Pharmacy Jagiellonian University Medical College
58 Potential drug-related problems associated with vitamin K antagonists in hospitalized patients Drug-Related Problems Pharmacy Department. Hospital del Mar
68 Readability assessment of medicine safety briefing notes targeted to the patients Drug-Related Problems Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacotherapy Unit. Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology. Faculty of Pharmacy. University of Barcelona.
72 Preventable medication errors involving Look-Alike/Sound-Alike: training the future pharmacists from direct experience Drug-Related Problems Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacotherapy Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona
77 Pharmacist’s perceptions regarding the documentation of interventions Drug-Related Problems Pharmaceutical Care Research Group, University of Basel, Switzerland
78 Healthcare professionals’ contribution on spontaneous reports of adverse reactions following immunization from 2009 to 2011 in Portugal Drug-Related Problems Soulth Pharmacovigilance Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
79 The pharmacist's role in drug safety monitoring in the elderly, in the south of Portugal, from 2009 to 2013 Drug-Related Problems Pharmacovigilance South Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Portugal
25 Specialized clinical services offered in community pharmacy in Quebec: a survey of pharmacy owners General Pharmaceutical Care Faculty of pharmacy, Univeristé de Montréal
33 The community pharmacist: A trustworthy source of information about complementary and alternate medicine? General Pharmaceutical Care Medway School of Pharmacy
36 Interdisciplinary collaboration pharmacists-nurses and medication adherence programs: a review General Pharmaceutical Care School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland & Community pharmacy, Department of ambulatory care & community medicine, University of Lausanne, L
39 A cross-sectional study to assess Slovenian community pharmacists’ counselling ensuring patients’ knowledge about their prescription medicines General Pharmaceutical Care Chair of Social Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana- Faculty of Pharmacy, Askerceva 7, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
48 The impact of education process for ability to self-measurement of blood pressure among patients with diagnosed hypertension. General Pharmaceutical Care Department of Social Pharmacy Jagiellonian University Medical School
49 Supporting self-management of type 2 diabetes: is there a role for the community pharmacist General Pharmaceutical Care University of Sydney
51 Quality of pharmaceutical care in the Netherlands: the results of five years of quality indicator measurement in Dutch community pharmacies General Pharmaceutical Care KNMP, IQ Healthcare Radboudumc
61 Contribution to creating a Good Practice Guideline for home visits to isolated polypharmacy elderly General Pharmaceutical Care Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade de Coimbra / IBILI - Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences / Ageing@Coimbra
67 Oral versus intramuscular vitamin B12 substitution: The patient’s preference General Pharmaceutical Care Pharmaceutical Care Research Group
70 The effectiveness of pharmaceutical care in diabetes in Poland - Markov model General Pharmaceutical Care Jagiellonian University Medical College, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Social Pharmacy
84 Pharmaceutical practice in Republic of Belarus – a pilot study General Pharmaceutical Care State pharmacy # 7, Gomel, Republic of Belarus
85 Comprehensibly measuring patients' subjective thoughts, feelings and experiences of living with medicines – the Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ) General Pharmaceutical Care Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
32 Evaluation of a community pharmacy spirometry testing service for current and recent ex-smokers Implementation research Medway School of Pharmacy
34 Integration of a non-dispensing clinical pharmacist in primary care: design of the POINT intervention study Implementation research Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht
37 The development of home medication reviews (HMR) in the Danish educational pharmacies Implementation research Department of Pharmacy, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
43 Development and validation of an algorithm to manage drug interactions with risk of QTc-prolongation in a community pharmacy Implementation research KU Leuven - Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences
44 What stage are pharmacists at with the implementation of the schedule? Some figures, motivation and hurdles Implementation research KAVA
55 Dose Administration Aid system in the elderly: testing student active participation in the implementation of a new service for community pharmacy Implementation research CiiEM, Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz (ISCSEM), Portugal
56 Evaluation of influenza vaccination services in a community pharmacy in Lisbon, Portugal Implementation research CiiEM, Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz (ISCSEM), Portugal
57 The non-dispensing clinical pharmacists’ needs in a clinical pharmacy training program Implementation research Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands
62 No time for pharmaceutical care? Implementation research KU Leuven, Clinical Pharmacology en Pharmacotherapy
64 Attitudes of patients and pharmacists about the community pharmacy service of prevention and treatment of osteoporosis Implementation research Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Center for development of pharmacy practice, Serbia
73 Design of an implementation study related to an interdisciplinary ART adherence program for HIV patients in community pharmacies Implementation research School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland and Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium
75 Evaluation of multidisciplinary health care program for patients using warfarin at primary health care settings, Amnatcharoen province, Thailand Implementation research Pathumratwongsa Hospital
83 In search for efficient implementation methods for first and second delivery consultation: what can be helpful? Implementation research Royal Society of Pharmacists of East Flanders - KOVAG
30 The WestGem study; Medication management in the elderly Medication Review Elefanten-Apotheke, Steinfurt, Germany
46 Potentially inappropriate medication in nursing homes: application of the Beers criteria Medication Review CiiEM, Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz (ISCSEM), Monte de Caparica, Portugal
53 Point prevalence survey on perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in a German hospital Medication Review Johannes-Apotheke, Groebenzell, Germany
59 Medication adherence and health outcomes among asthma patients in Slovenia Medication Review Chair of Social Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana- Faculty of Pharmacy
69 The optimization of medication use of Belgian nursing home residents based on a multidisciplinary collaboration (the Come-On study). Study protocol Medication Review Université Catholique de Louvain
82 Medication use and drug related problems in elderly: self-reported questionnaire showed good agreement compared with a home visit interview Medication Review VU University Medical Center, Department of General Practice & Elderly Care Medicine, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
20 Pharmaceutical Services Cost Analysis Using Time-Driven Activity Based Costing in a Sample of Portuguese Community Pharmacies Others (exceptional use) WHO Collaborating Center on Health Workforce Policy and Planning, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical
26 Quality and safety in medication use in residential facilities for the disabled – development of an educational programme Others (exceptional use) Pharmakon - Danish College of Pharmacy Practice
66 Adherence to Polypharmacy in Patients with Opioid Substitution Therapy using ELectronics (APPOSTEL): A Study Design Others (exceptional use) Pharmaceutical Care Research Group, University of Basel, Switzerland
23 Experiences of using prescription medicines among the general public in the UK- a comparison of paper- and online-reported experiences Outcomes research Medway School of Pharmacy, The Universities of Kent and Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent,UK ME4 4TB
24 ProFiL, a training-and-communication network program in nephrology for community pharmacists: impact on knowledge, clinical competences, quality of medication use and clinical variables Outcomes research Faculty of pharmacy, Université de Montréal
40 Patients' knowledge and attitude towards therapeutic reference pricing system in Slovenia Outcomes research Chair of Social Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana- Faculty of Pharmacy, Askerceva 7, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
42 Depression training for pharmacists significantly improves patients’ satisfaction, concerns and feelings about side effects regarding antidepressant therapy Outcomes research KU Leuven, Department of Pharmaceutical & Pharmacological sciences, Leuven Belgium
52 Intervention program for hypertensive patients in community pharmacy Outcomes research S.C. MUSO S.R.L.
27 Do patients receive information leaflets with their dispensed medicines in Kuwait? Standards and Guidelines Kuwait University
28 Continuing pharmaceutical care – DOAC Standards and Guidelines KAVA - Koninklijke Apothekers Vereniging Antwerpen
63 Introducing pharmaceutical care in a long stay psychiatric hospital Standards and Guidelines Farmegra Ltd., Podgorica, Montenegro
65 What makes a “good” medication plan? -Identification of factors that influence the quality of medication plans- Standards and Guidelines Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität
80 Opinion of pharmacy practitioners regarding pharmacists' competencies in Republic of Moldova Standards and Guidelines State University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Nicolae Testemitanu"
81 Evaluation of essential pharmacy services and roles of pharmacists in Ukraine Standards and Guidelines Department of clinical pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, National University of Pharmacy, Charkiv, Ukraine

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